Transportation characteristics include volume, mass, storage conditions, physical and chemical properties, packing characteristics. Transportation directly connected with the above-mentioned characteristics. Carriage form influenced on vehicles specialization. Simple and convenient package is used to carry cargo easily.
Nomenclature developed for all kinds of transport:
To systematize the cargo properties and resolve the complex issue of combined carriage, people shared them on the following features: form of carriage, physical and chemical properties, carriage conditions and compatibility of various cargo properties.
By carriage method, cargo divide on piece, bulked and aggregative. Piece cargo is boxes, bags, barrels, bales, drums and others. This group should include automobiles, tractors, construction machinery, engineering machinery and other goods that are transport separately. You can mix such goods to carry, for example, equipment, medicines and clothes. Long-measuring cargo – is cargo that requires more than 9m and heavyweight – is cargo, which mass is more than 3 tons.
Bulk cargo can transport without packing. It consists of uniform particles and carry in large quantities. For example, grain, coal, ore.
Aggregative cargo includes containers, trailers and packs. This makes possible to simplify and mechanize the load, reload and unload. Oil, oil products, molasses, alcohols, low gases belongs to bulk liquids.
Depend on the physicochemical properties cargo can be:
Transportation regime divided cargo into: operating and no operating. No operating are those, which physical and chemical properties are not influence the external factors during carrying. This cargo does not require special conditions. Operating include cargo which need to create a special temperature and humidity conditions.
Cargo compatibility is very important for transport company, because it’s important to plan the cargo placement and don’t ruin and change its physical and chemical properties. Cargo carrier must fully know all information about the cargo properties and how do they change, depending on the container. To determine the possibility of carriage compatibility, cargo is divide into the following groups: with aggressive properties exposed to aggressive factors, and neutral to other cargo.
Cargo with aggressive properties are divided into groups: fuel, water generation, outgassing, emit odors, toxic, dusty, spontaneously igniting, quarantine objects carriers.
Cargo that are susceptible to corrosive factors are divided into: perishable under the influence of moisture, and heat; measurable effects of toxic substances, quarantine facilities and perceive smells.
Type I. Dangerous cargo with displacement possibility.
Class 1. Non-grain bulk cargo:
Class 2. Grain cargo
Class 3. General cargo
Class 4. Forrest cargo:
Type II. Regime cargo
Class 1. Perishable cargo
Class 2. Nonperishable cargo, which required humidity control and ventilation modes.
Type III. Dangerous cargo divided into classes:
Class 1 – Explosives;
Class 2 – Gases: high-pressure, liquefied, dissolved under the pressure;
Class 3 - Highly inflammable liquid;
Subclass 4.1 - Highly inflammable solid substance;
Subclass 4.2 – Self-ignition substance;
Subclass 4.3 – Substance, which emit flammable gases in contact with water;
Subclass 5.1 - Oxidizing agents;
Subclass 5.2 - Organic peroxides;
Subclass 6.1 - Toxic substance;
Subclass 6.2 – Infectious substance;
Class 7 – Radioactive materials;
Class 8 – Corrosive (caustic) materials;
Class 9 – Other dangerous materials and items;
Type IV. Liquid bulk cargo are divide into: