Kinds of cargo

Transportation characteristics include volume, mass, storage conditions, physical and chemical properties, packing characteristics. Transportation directly connected with the above-mentioned characteristics. Carriage form influenced on vehicles specialization. Simple and convenient package is used to carry cargo easily.

What kinds of cargo are use for transportation?

Nomenclature developed for all kinds of transport:

  • by origin - agriculture and industry products;
  • by physical and chemical properties - perishable and long period storage goods;
  • by transportation technology - dry and liquid bulk;
  • by form presented for carriage - packaged items, bulk, liquid bulk.

To systematize the cargo properties and resolve the complex issue of combined carriage, people shared them on the following features: form of carriage, physical and chemical properties, carriage conditions and compatibility of various cargo properties.

By carriage method, cargo divide on piece, bulked and aggregative. Piece cargo is boxes, bags, barrels, bales, drums and others. This group should include automobiles, tractors, construction machinery, engineering machinery and other goods that are transport separately. You can mix such goods to carry, for example, equipment, medicines and clothes. Long-measuring cargo – is cargo that requires more than 9m and heavyweight – is cargo, which mass is more than 3 tons.

Bulk cargo can transport without packing. It consists of uniform particles and carry in large quantities. For example, grain, coal, ore.

Aggregative cargo includes containers, trailers and packs. This makes possible to simplify and mechanize the load, reload and unload. Oil, oil products, molasses, alcohols, low gases belongs to bulk liquids.

Depend on the physicochemical properties cargo can be:

  • hygroscopic - are capable to take moisture from the environment and easily give it away;
  • self-heating and spontaneously igniting;
  • toxic and with harmful gases;
  • inflammable;
  • explosives;
  • caking, regelate;
  • with specific smell;
  • perceive odor smell;
  • dusty.

Классификация грузов

Transportation regime divided cargo into: operating and no operating.  No operating are those, which physical and chemical properties are not influence the external factors during carrying.  This cargo does not require special conditions. Operating include cargo which need to create a special temperature and humidity conditions.

Cargo compatibility is very important for transport company, because it’s important to plan the cargo placement and don’t ruin and change its physical and chemical properties. Cargo carrier must fully know all information about the cargo properties and how do they change, depending on the container. To determine the possibility of carriage compatibility, cargo is divide into the following groups: with aggressive properties exposed to aggressive factors, and neutral to other cargo.

Cargo with aggressive properties are divided into groups: fuel, water generation, outgassing, emit odors, toxic, dusty, spontaneously igniting, quarantine objects carriers.

Cargo that are susceptible to corrosive factors are divided into: perishable under the influence of moisture, and heat; measurable effects of toxic substances, quarantine facilities and perceive smells.

Cargo classification by type

Type I. Dangerous cargo with displacement possibility.

Class 1. Non-grain bulk cargo:

  • Dangerous cargo with liquefaction possibility;
  • Bulk cargo, with dangerous possibility of the dry state displacement;
  • Displacement and liquefaction cargo;
  • Faintly displacement cargo;
  • Dangerous bulked cargo;

Class 2. Grain cargo

Class 3. General cargo

  • Mobile equipment;
  • Building ferroconcrete items and constructions;
  • Containers;
  • Cargo in packages and bags;
  • Cargo in box and cardboard;
  • Cylindrical and conic cargo;
  • Heavy-loaded and big-volume;
  • Other cargo.

Class 4.  Forrest cargo:

  • Roundwood in bulk;
  • Roundwood in packages;
  • Lumber in bulk;
  • Lumber in packages;
  • Wood chips.

Type II. Regime cargo

Class 1. Perishable cargo

  • Frozen cargo;
  • Refrigerated cargo of animal origin;
  • Refrigerated cargo (fruit and vegetable);

Class 2. Nonperishable cargo, which required humidity control and ventilation modes.

Type III. Dangerous cargo divided into classes:

Class 1 – Explosives;

Class 2 – Gases: high-pressure, liquefied, dissolved under the pressure;

Class 3 - Highly inflammable liquid;

Subclass 4.1 - Highly inflammable solid substance;

Subclass 4.2 – Self-ignition substance;

Subclass 4.3 – Substance, which emit flammable gases in contact with water;

Subclass 5.1 - Oxidizing agents;

Subclass 5.2 - Organic peroxides;

Subclass 6.1 - Toxic substance;

Subclass 6.2 – Infectious substance;

Class 7 – Radioactive materials;

Class 8 – Corrosive (caustic) materials;

Class 9 – Other dangerous materials and items;

Type IV.  Liquid bulk cargo are divide into:

  1. Oil products;
  2. Food cargo (vegetable oil, wine, molasses, etc.);
  3. Chemical cargo;
  4. Decreased gases.